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# 3(24) 2016: Museum: Past, Present and Future
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Topic of the Issue

Interviewed by Anna Koneva

To Save and to Collect. Interview with the Director of the Hermitage Mikhail Borisovich Piotrovsky

The main topics of the interview are cultural memory, taste, museim as a cultural institution, turism, cultural politics, cultural values, the future of the museum’s politics.

Key words: museum, memory, exhibition, moderm art, cultural politics.

Antonina NIKONOVA

Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia
Institute of Philosophy, Department of Museum Studies and Monument Protection
PhD (Philosophy)

The Museum Heuristics: Pro et Contra

Information potential of the museum object requires a permanent search for the new methods of study, interpretation and updating of the information field. In this regard, we should once again draw the reader's attention to the importance of the developing of theoretical and methodological research in museology. It is necessary to return to the study of museum object as historical source, and further define and develop methods of obtaining new knowledge in the museum space. This can solve the problem of museum's heuristics as a separate direction of museological research. The basis for a new research direction should become the work of historians and archivists, who are already developing such areas as historical and archival heuristics, historical Internet-heuristics. The goal of the museum heuristics will be the study of logical systems’ methods and methodological rules of searching and saving information about museum object with the aim of obtaining new knowledge and learning abilities of museum object to influence emotions and attention of a visitor, the form of perception of representational and associative characteristics of museum object. The results of sociological research show that 52% of visitors come to museums for knowledge. They just do not know, by which methods they can get this knowledge in museums. On these problems should be focused the museum heuristics.

Key words: museum object, museum heuristics, attribution of museum object, visual image, exhibition, visitor.

References

  • Alekseeva L.K.Opyt informatizacii muzejnoj deyatel'nosti: problemy i poiski (na primere Gosudarstvennogo literaturnogo muzeya).
  • Zapesockij A.S., Markov A.P. Sovremennaya kul'turologiya kak nauchnaya paradigma // Voprosy filosofii. M., 2010. №8. S. 76–87
  • Kots A.F. Sobranie sochinenij. T. 2: Istoriya sozdaniya Gosudarstvennogo Darvinovskogo muzeya / Pod obshch. red. A.I. Klyukinoj. M.: GDM, 2014. 304c.
  • Kropach I. Poznanie, tvorcheskaya fantaziya ili illyuziya? Istoriya s formal'noj tochki zreniya. / Elektronnyj resurs:
    http://www.aik- sng.ru/text/bullet/22/11.shtml (data obrashcheniya 10.07.2016)
  • Otchet po gosudarstvennomu kontraktu ot 31.05.2012 № 1048-01-41/06-12 o vypolnenii nauchno-issledovatel'skoj raboty «Integraciya muzeev v regional'noe sociokul'turnoe prostranstvo». / Elektronnyj resurs:
    mkrf.ru›upload/mkrf/mkdocs2012/14_11_2012_3.pdf (data obrashcheniya 15.08.2016)
  • Rol' muzeev v informacionnom obespechenii istoricheskoj nauki. Sb.statej/avt.sost.E.A.Voroncova; otv.red.L.I.Borodkin, A.D.YAnovskij. M.: EHterna, 2015. 752s.
  • Tolstova N. N. Arhivnaya ehvristika: metodicheskie rekomendacii. Uchebno-metodicheskoe posobie. Izd. 2-e, ispravl. i dop. Nizhnij Novgorod: Nizhegorodskij gosuniversitet, 2015. 75 s.
  • Hvostova K.V Sovremennaya neklassicheskaya nauchnaya paradigma i istoricheskaya nauka./Voprosy filosofii. M., 2014,№10, S.25-36. / Elektronnyj resurs:
    http://vphil.ru/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1031(data obrashcheniya 12.08.2016)
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Aleksey SMIRNOV

Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia
Institute of Philosophy, Department of Cultural Studies, Philosophy of Culture and Aesthetics, Associate Professor, Doctor of Science (Philosophy)

Contemporary Museum: Communication or Commemoration

It is necessary to create such an approach to the theory of museum communication, which considers the museum as a form of cultural translation memory. This consideration takes into account the active participation of the museum in commemoration practices, which can not be described theoretically using the communication model applied in museology. Revision of the communication model of the museum is confirmed with the examples of corporate museums, a relatively new form of museum work in Russia, as well as historical museums. On the one hand, history museums are involved in the formation of cultural memory, but, on the other hand, they are able to transmit political ideologemes. We also consider new forms of museum activities, in particular, the "museum of the Soviet past". These museums can neither be adequately described in terms of museum communication theory, nor be considered as a tool for translation of ideology. The main purpose of these projects is to create a specific space for commemoration practices.

Key words: contemporary museum, museum as a media, theoretical model of a museum, museum communication, communication channel, commemoration, practices of commemoration, cultural memory, ideology, historical museum.

References

  • Abramov R.N. Muzeefikaciya sovetskogo: istoricheskaya travma ili nostal'giya? // CHelovek. 2013. № 5. S. 99 – 111.
  • Assman A. Novoe nedovol'stvo memorial'noj kul'turoj. M.: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2016.
  • Bezzubova O.V. Teoriya muzejnoj kommunikacii kak model' sovremennogo obrazovatel'nogo processa // Kommunikaciya i obrazovanie. Sb. statej. SPb.: Sankt- Peterburgskoe filosofskoe obshchestvo, 2004, S. 418 – 427.
  • Vasil'ev A.G. Memory studies: edinstvo paradigmy – mnogoobrazie ob"ektov // Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. №117 (5/2012). 2012. S. 461 – 480.
  • Vol'kovich A.YU. Model' muzejnoj kommunikacii v koncepcii zarubezhnyh muzeevedov. //Muzej v sovremennoj kul'ture. SPb, 1997.
  • Vol'kovich A.YU. Muzejnaya ehkspoziciya kak semioticheskaya sistema. Avtoref. diss. … kand. kul'turol. SPb, 1997.
  • Geterogennost' pamyati imperii i nacii. Ab Imperio. 2004. №1
  • Girlya K. SHtrih k reputacii. Proshloe kak instrument. // Real'nyj biznes. №3 2006 g. (ehlektronnyj dokument) Rezhim dostupa:
    http://www.real- business.ru/magazines/3-2006/shtrih-k
    -reputacii-proshloe-kak-instrument (data obrashcheniya 15.06.2015)
  • Gnedovskij M.B. Muzejnaya kommunikaciya i muzejnyj scenarij. // Muzej i sovremennost'. - M.,1986 (Sb.nauch.tr. NII kul'tury)
  • Gnedovskij M.B., Dukel'skij V.YU. Muzejnaya kommunikaciya kak predmet muzeevedcheskogo issledovaniya // Muzejnoe delo: Muzej – kul'tura – obshchestvo. M.,1992.
  • Istoricheskaya pamyat' i nacional'naya paradigma. Ab Imperio. 2004. №3
  • Kul'turnaya pamyat'. Mezhdunarodnyj zhurnal issledovanij kul'tury. № 1(6) 2012.
  • Malahovskaya YU. Razvivaem vnutrennij PR: vse o korporativnoj kul'ture i nemnogo o sluhah... // Vsyo dlya kadrovika. 2011 № 7.
  • Mastenica E.N. Korporativnaya kul'tura muzeya // Voprosy kul'turologii. №6. 2012. S.:5 – 70.
  • Muzej i kommunikaciya. Koncepciya razvitiya Samarskogo oblastnogo istoriko-kraevedcheskogo muzeya im. P.V. Alabina. Moskva-Samara, 1998, - 140 s.
  • Pamyat' repressirovannaya, vytesnennaya i poteryannaya. Ab Imperio. 2004. №2
  • Pochepcov G.G. Teoriya kommunikacii. M.: Refl-buk, 2006.
  • Primirenie cherez proshloe: pan"evropejskaya perspektiva. Ab Imperio. 2004. №4
  • Problemy kul'turnoj kommunikacii v muzejnoj deyatel'nosti. Sb.nauch.tr.NII kul'tury. M.,1989
  • Sapanzha O.S. Razvitie predstavlenij o muzejnoj kommunikacii // Izvestiya RGPU im. A.I. Gercena. Vyp. 103, 2009 g. S.245 – 252.
  • Sovremennye tendencii razvitiya muzejnoj kommunikacii v kapitalisticheskih stranah: teoriya i praktika. Obzornaya informaciya. Vyp.1. M., GBL, Informkul'tura. 1986.
  • Stolyarov B.A. Muzejnaya pedagogika: istoriya teoriya, praktika. M., Vysshaya shkola, 2004.
  • Suprunchuk A.P. Muzej – prostranstvo dlya retranslyacii kul'turnoj pamyati na primere sovremennyh evrejskih muzeev // Studia Humanitatis. №3. 2015. (ehlektronnyj dokument) Rezhim dostupa:
    http://st-hum.ru/content/suprunchuk-ap-muzey-prostranstvo-dlya-
    retranslyacii-kulturnoy-pamyati-na-primere-sovremennyh (data obrashcheniya: 15.08 2016)
  • Timofeev M.YU. Muzeefikaciya SSSR // Labirint. №5. 2014. S.25 – 33.
  • Franciya-pamyat'. SPb.: Izd-vo S.-Peterb. un-ta, 1999.
  • Fuko M. Politicheskaya funkciya intellektuala // Intellektualy i vlast': Izbrannye politicheskie stat'i, vystupleniya i interv'yu. CH. 1. M.: Praksis, 2002. S. 201 – 209.
  • Hal'bvaks M. Social'nye ramki pamyati. M.: Novoe izdatel'stvo, 2007.
  • Cameron D. A Viewpoint: The Museum as a Communications System and Implications for Museum Education // Curator. 1968. Vol. 11. P. 33-40.
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Alexander DRIKKER

Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia
Institute of Philosophy, Department of Museum Studies and Monument Protection
Professor, Doctor of Science (Cultural Studies)


Eugene MAKOVETSKY

Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia
Institute of Philosophy, Department of Museum Studies and Monument Protection
Associate Professor, Doctor of Science (Philosophy)

Museum Temple

The article is devoted to the analysis of radical transformations of the museum in modern culture. The historical path of the museum is considered: the reason of its birth only in the Protestant world, the forming museum as temple which affirms in post-religious society the supreme values (the truth, beauty) are shown in the materialized form. Connection of ideal and reality provides a rise of the museum temple, but it is fraught with the conflict. Property, posession, cost of museum exhibit initially determine museum institute. During rapid democratization of sanctuaries the materiality with its obvious pragmatical value in the relativistic world becomes more convincing than the doubtful eternal truth, the subject is more preferable than abstract ideals. A cult of things gives museum very noticeable preferences. A museum keeps and exhibits things (although unusual things). It is quite natural that the museum lives in democratic time more successfully, than related institutes of memory (the vegetating archives and dying libraries). Powerful pressure of the democratic atmosphere causes steady drift of the museum temple to «service to society». But in this cozy course disastrous danger traps the museums temples – temptation of a reduction, desire to fit into the world of the simplifications.
The topical museum (great purpose – service of democratic society and of visitor) replaces the museum temple. The prices are wining over the values. More and more obvious weakening of the museum temple, it attempts to go in the democratic current – the certificate of completion of a museum era. Global museumification, democratic museum boom don't contradict it. Numerous ill-matched democratic institutes of the social organization of leisure, clubs on interests (which unites only passion to a fashion brand of museum ) will find more organic not museum forms.
However the museum temple, of course, will remain as a monument of a surprising era, as the major reference point for searches of new «eternal» values and construction of new temples.

Key words: museum, temple, values, prices, Protestant ethics, cult, sacrality, democracy, era, culture, Reformation, evolution.

References

  • Anan'ev V.G. Istoriya zarubezhnoj muzeologii. SPb: SPbGU, Institut istorii, 2014. 136.
  • Bazen ZH. Istoriya istorii iskusstva: ot Vazari do nashih dnej. M.: Progress, 1994. 728 s.
  • Ben'yamin V. Proizvedenie iskusstva v ehpohu ego tekhnicheskoj vosproizvodimosti.// Izbrannye ehssse, M.: Medium, 1996. 240 s.
  • Bodrijar ZH. Obshchestvo potrebleniya. M.: Respublika, Kul'turnaya Revolyuciya, 2006. 269 s.
  • Visser Dzh. «Muzei v period social'nyh i tekhnologicheskih izmenenij».
    URL: http://themuseumofthefuture.com/2014/04/18/museums-in-times-of-social
    -and- technological-change/
  • Van Mensh P. K metodologii muzeologii.// Voprosy muzeologii. №1, 2014, s. 15-291.
  • Veber M. Izbrannoe. Protestantskaya ehtika i duh kapitalizma. M.: SPb.: Centr gumanitarnyh iniciativ, 2012. 656 s.
  • Grojs B. Mediaiskusstvo v muzee // URL: http://anthropology.ru/ru/texts/groys/mediart.html.
  • Dzhenks CH. Zrelishchnyj muzej – mezhdu hramom i torgovym centrom. Osmyslenie protivorechij // PINAKOTEKA. 2000. № 12. s. 5-15.
  • Drikker A.S. O roli torgovli v hrame.// Muzej, №6, 2009, s. 4-7.
  • Drikker A.S. Fizicheskie aspekty metafizicheskoj transformacii. SPb.: RHGA, 2014. 77 s.
  • Keler V. Issledovanie intellekta chelovekoobraznyh obez'yan. M.: Izdatel'stvo kommunisticheskoj akademii, 1930. 206 s.
  • Lamsden CH., Gushurst A. Gennokul'turnaya koehvolyuciya: chelovecheskij rod v stanovlenii// CHelovek. №3, 1991. s. 11-17.
  • Makoveckij E.A. Aristotel' v muzee. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta, seriya 6, vyp. 2, 2009. s. 171-185.
  • Mal'ro A. Zerkalo limba: Sbornik. M.: Progress, 1989. 515 s.
  • Klyuchevye ponyatiya muzeologii. M.: IKOM, 2012. 101 s.
  • Piazhe ZH. Psihologiya intellekta// Izbrannye psihologicheskie trudy. M., 1994. 659 s.
  • Stranskij Z. Ponimanie muzeevedeniya // Muzeevedenie. Muzei mira: Sb. nauch. tr. M.: NII kul'tury., 1991. s. 92-135.
  • Florenkij P.A. Ikonostas. SPB.: Azbuka, 2013. 224 s.
  • Hadson K. Vliyatel'nye muzei. Novosibirsk: Sibirskij hronograf, 2001. 194 s.
  • Hudyakova L.A. Muzej mezhdu utopiej i uhronie. B. Delosh o sushchnosti muzejnoj institucii. Vestnik SPbGU. Seriya 2. Istoriya. 2013. Vyp. 4., s. 145 – 152.
  • SHmit F.I. Muzejnoe delo. Voprosy ehkspozicii. L-d. :«Academia», 1929. 246 s.
  • Belting N. Contemporary Art and the Museum in the Global Age// Peter Weibel, Andrea Buddensieg, eds, Contemporary Art and the Museum. Ostfildern: Hantje Cantz Verlag, 2007. pp. 30-37.
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Marina TSVETAEVA

Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia
Institute of Philosophy, Department of Museum Studies and Monument Protection
Professor, Doctor of Science (Cultural Studies)

Classical Museum: Problems of Cultural Heritage Interpretation

This article investigates the mission of the classical museum to conservate both material and non-material heritage. It also highlights the problems of interaction between religious culture and the museum in the contex of soteriological and religious-moral basis. The spiritual and moral problematic that can be seen in Сhristian anthropology, classical literature and art, help to expand the interpretational models and methods of exposing cultural heritage. They also result in enrichment of the museum with traditional spheres of the Christian world outlook that are crucial not only for creating expositions of Ancient Russian and Medieval art but also classical and contemporary as well. The system of trichotomous analysis helps to identify various levels of culture, aspects of spiritual and moral, religious and secularized worldviews. The main idea is enlarging the figurative language by means of semantic, spiritual-aesthetic, dramaturgic potential of the exposition, which becomes a symbol, text and meaning at once. The methods of interpretation and exhibition of masonry, that influenced many cultural spheres of XVIII – the first half of XIX centuries, are analyzed by means of the example of the paintings of F. S. Rokotov. These works can be found in the Russian museum. This article also analyses the semantics of baroque and rococo that are shown within the exposition.

Key words: baroque, theologies of culture, interpretation, classic museum, cultural heritage, mystic, ontology, rococo, F. Rokotov, soteriology, Church, exposition.

References

  • Berdyaev N. Filosofiya tvorchestva, kul'tury i iskusstva. V 2-h t. T. 2. M., 1994.
  • CHekhov A. Sobr. soch. v 12-ti t. T.5. Rasskazy. M., 1955. S.485.
  • Protoierej Georgij Florovskij. Puti Russkogo Bogosloviya. Vil'nyus. 1991. S. 115.
  • Petinova E. Fedos SHCHedrin. L., 1977. S.21.
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Alexey LUCHKIN

State budgetary institution of culture of Moscow “Museum-panorama “The Battle of Borodino”, Russia
Expositional and exhibition department

The museum exhibition of the late XIX beginning of the XX century through the eyes of his contemporaries. Birth of Criticism

In an article on the example of the history of the first exhibitions of specific museums late XIX – early XX century the importance of the use of correspondence and memoirs of contemporaries in the study of the evolution of the exposition of thought in Russia, as well as the birth of the national museum of constructive criticism is shown.

Key words: the history of museums , the Russian Empire, the museum exposition beginning of XX century, the Tretyakov Gallery, the Museum of Old Petersburg , Russian Museum , memoirs and correspondence culture, «World of Art».

References

  • Benua A.N. Vozniknovenie «Mira iskusstva». Leningrad, 1928.
  • Benua A.N. Moi vospominaniya. V 2 t. M., 1980.
  • A.N. Benua i ego adresaty. Vyp. 2. Perepiska s M.V. Dobuzhinskim (1903 - 1957). SPb., 2003.
  • Benua A.N. Hudozhestvennye pis'ma 1908 –1917. Gazeta «Rech'». Peterburg. T. 1. 1908 –1910. SPb., 2006. S. 252 – 257.
  • Blinov A.M. «EHti lyudi byli podvizhnikami…» // Leningradskaya panorama. 1988. № 9. S. 38-39;
  • Vrangel' N. N. Svojstvo veka: Stat'i po istorii russkogo iskusstva. SPb., 2001.
  • Dobuzhinskij M.V. Vospominaniya. M., 1987.
  • Grabar' I. EH. Moya zhizn': Avtomografiya. EHtyudy o hudozhnikah. M., 2001.
  • Dmitriev S.S. Vospominaniya, dnevniki i chastnaya perepiska // Istochnikovedenie istorii SSSR / Pod red. I.D. Koval'chenko. M., 1981
  • Dmitriev S.S. Vospominaniya, dnevniki i chastnaya perepiska // Istochnikovedenie istorii SSSR / Pod red. I.D. Koval'chenko. M., 1981.
  • Kaufman R.S. Ocherki istorii russkoj hudozhestvennoj kritiki: Ot Konstantina Batyushkova do Aleksandra Benua. M., 1990.
  • Katalog hudozhestvennyh proizvedenij gorodskoj galerei Pavla i Sergeya Tret'yakovyh. M., 1917.
  • Kononenko E.A. Muzej Starogo Peterburga: Buklet. SPb., 2007.
  • Laverychev V.YA. Memuary, dnevniki, chastnaya perepiska perioda imperializma // Istochnikovedenie istorii SSSR XIX – nachala XX v. M., 1970.
  • Luchkin A.V. ZHizn' dlya muzeya. Muzejnaya deyatel'nost' A.N. Benua // Sobor lic. SPb., 2006. S. 109 –116.
  • Luchkin A.V. Vystavka: istoki sovremennosti // Muzej bez bar'erov. M., 2013. S. 49-61.
  • Luchkin A.V. Muzej Starogo Peterburga v vospominaniyah i perepiski hudozhnikov ob"edineniya «Mir iskusstva» // Trudy Gosudarstvennogo muzeya istorii Sankt-Peterburga. Vyp. 18. Lyudi i kollekcii. 100 let Gosudarstvennomu muzeyu istorii Sankt-Peterburga. SPb., 2008. S. 52-56.
  • Luchkin A.V. «Vpechatleniya moej zhizni» knyagini M.K. Tenishevoj. Istoriya sozdaniya i publikacii // Sbornik nauchnyh trudov studencheskogo istoricheskogo obshchestva: Vyp. II. Smolensk, 2006. S. 94–98.
  • Luchkin A.V. Muzej v biografii hudozhnika. Muzejnaya deyatel'nost' I.YA. Bilibina i I.EH. Grabarya // Vyatskij hudozhestvennyj muzej imeni V.M. i A.M. Vasnecovyh. Materialy i issledovaniya. Vyp. VI. Muzejnye sobraniya. Issledovanie, sohranenie i perspektivy razvitiya: Kirov. 2014. S. 106–115.
  • Margolis A.D. Muzej Starogo Peterburga // Arhitektura Peterburga: Materialy issledovanij. CH. 2. SPb., 1992. S. 140 –141;
  • Pavelkina A. Muzej Starogo Peterburga // Muzej i gorod. SPb., 1993. S. 10 –15;
  • Pavelkina A.M. Ot Muzeya Starogo Peterburga k Gosudarstvennomu muzeyu istorii Sankt-Peterburga // Ot Muzeya Starogo Peterburga k Gosudarstvennomu muzeyu istorii Sankt- Peterburga: Trudy Gosudarstvennogo muzeya istorii Sankt-Peterburga. Issledovaniya i materialy. Vyp. II. SPb., 1997. S. 9-17;
  • Popova G.A. Muzej Goroda v Anichkovom dvorce. Sobytiya, sud'by, kollekcii. SPb., 1998. Polunina N.M. Kto est' kto v kollekcionirovanii staroj Rossii: Novyj biograficheskij slovar'. M., 2003.
  • Pushkarev L.N. Klassifikaciya russkih pis'mennyh istochnikov po otechestvennoj istorii. M., 1975.
  • A.P. Ostroumova-Lebedeva Avtobiograficheskie zapiski. V 3 t. M., 2003.
  • Rumyanceva M.F. Teoriya istorii. M., 2002.
  • Tartakovskij A.G. 1812 god i russkaya memuaristika. M.,1980. S. 29.
  • Tenisheva M.K. Vpechatleniya moej zhizni. M., 2002. S. 177 –178.
  • Pis'ma M.V. Dobuzhinskogo A.P. Ostroumovoj-Lebedevoj RNB OR F. 1015. Ed. hr. 568. L. 6-7.
  • Sobranie knyagini M.K. Tenishevoj: K 100-letiyu Russkogo muzeya. SPb., 2008.
  • Russkij muzej Imperatora Aleksandra III. ZHivopis' i skul'ptura. T. 1-2.
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Yuliya KUZOVENKOVA

Samara State Medical University, Samara, Russia
Associate Professor of the Department of Philosophy and Cultural Studies, PhD in Cultural Studies

The Dialectics of Museum and Street through the Lens of Becoming a Street Artist

The article deals with the relationships between young street artists and Artworld institutions (museums, galleries) in the process of becoming professional artists. In this context, Artworld institutions get into the field of dialectical relationships between true and false in art and become judges in local cultural space of province. The research is based on the interviews have been conducted with members of Artworld institutions and with street artists and graffiti artists from Samara. The results of the research show that museums and galleries, which give artists an opportunity of exhibiting, act as social and material conditions for recognition street artists as serious artists and for their development. On the other hand, galleries don`t usually meet all street artists` needs. For this reason streets are so impotent as museums and galleries for street artists. First of all, streets enable them to call themselves street artists distinguishing traditional artists and street artists. Secondly, streets gave opportunities for creative experiments, because there are less standards.

Key words: street art, graffiti, city, province, artist, museum, gallery, institution, modern art.

References

  • Chalfant H., Prigoff J. Spraycan Art. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1999
  • Lachmann R. Graffiti as Career and Ideology // American Journal of Sociology. 1988. Vol. 94, No. 2. S. 229-250.
  • Crane D. The Transformation of the Avant-Garde - The New York Art World, 1940- 1985. U.S.: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
  • Foster H., Krauss R., Bua I.-A., Buhlo B.H.D., Dzhosli D. Iskusstvo s 1900 goda: modernizm, antimodernizm, postmodernizm. – M.: OOO «Ad Marginem Press», 2015.
  • Uspenskij A. «Abolon polvederskij» ili ehkspansiya marginal'nogo // DI. 2009. № 3. C. 94-98.
  • Hebdige, Dick. 1979. Subculture: The Meaning of Style. London: Methuen.
  • Golynko-Vol'fson D. Strit-art: teoriya i praktika obzhivaniya ulichnoj sredy // Moskow Art Magazin. № 81.
    URL: http://permm.ru/menu/xzh/arxiv/81/9.html (data obrashcheniya: 07.08.2016).
  • Becker, Howard S. Art Worlds. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. 1982.
  • Castleman, Craig. 1982. Getting Up. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
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Irina MURZINA

Ural State Pedagogical University, Yekaterinburg, Russia
Head of Department of Culturology, Professor, Doctor of Science (Culturology)


Alexander MURZIN

Ural State Pedagogical University, Yekaterinburg, Russia
PhD (Cultural Studies)

Mining Museums: New Educational Space and the Representation of Culture

The analysis of spiritual culture of miners from several regions of Europe and Russia allow to say that there is a certain type of culture in these areas for which mining was determined by the routine and rhythm of life and has formed the system of values. The transformation of culture tooks place in the transition from medieval culture to developed industrial one. The purpose of this article is to show the direction of the preservation of the cultural heritage of the miners.
Today, the list of cultural heritage of UNESCO includes 15 monuments of mining history. In addition to them in the cities associated with the extraction of minerals, are small museums intended to acquaint with the peculiarities of mining. At the same time, the issue of museumification of cultural heritage of miners still remains relevant.
In the article the substantive aspects of the exhibits of mining museums and suggested promising directions for mainstreaming culture in Russia are shown.

Key words: the museumification, miner, mining, type of culture, museum, historical and cultural heritage, intangible cultural heritage, tradition, cultural codes and semantics.

References

  • Grin'ko N.K., Grun' V.D., Lunev V.G. Vsemirnoe nasledie gornogo dela // Gornaya Promyshlennost'. 2012. №2. URL: http://www.mining- media.ru/ru/article/company/2513-vsemirnoe
    -nasledie-gornogo-dela (data obrashcheniya 15.06.2016)
  • Grin'ko N.K., Grun' V.D., Lunev V.G. Istoricheskaya, obrazovatel'naya i kommercheskaya cennost' muzeev istorii gornogo dela // Gornaya Promyshlennost'. 2012. №3.
    URL: http://www.mining-media.ru/ru/article/company/8418-
    istoricheskaya-obrazovatelnaya-i-kommercheskaya-tsennost
    -muzeev-istorii-gornogo-dela-2 (data obrashcheniya 20.07.2016)
  • Kaulen M. E. Muzeefikaciya istoriko kul'turnogo naslediya Rossii. – M.: EHterna, 2012. 432 s.
  • Losev A. F. Filosofiya kul'tury//Losev A. F. Derzanie duha. – M.: Politizdat, 1988. C.218-238
  • Mezhdunarodnaya konvenciya ob ohrane nematerial'nogo kul'turnogo naslediya.
    URL: http://www.unesco.org/bpi/rus/pdf/03-82-Russe.pdf (data obrashcheniya 20.07.2016)
  • Murzina I.YA. Regional'noe kul'turno-obrazovatel'noe prostranstvo: struktura, funkcii, sociokul'turnyj potencial: monografiya – M.: Pero, 2014. 197 s.
  • Nacional'nyj Turisticheskij Rejting (№1). Dekabr' 2015.
    URL: http://russia-rating.ru/info/9857.html (data obrashcheniya 15.06.2016)
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Olga BEZZUBOVA

Saint-Petersburg Mining University, Russia
Department of Philosophy, Associate Professor, Ph. D (Philosophy)

Museum and the Memory Policy

The article considers the value of museums in context of social and cultural memory as a subject of contemporary social sciences and humanities. The notion of memory compared to the notion of history enables to take under consideration the personal, individual aspects of lived experience. Meanwhile, unlike the history striving for objectivity and impartiality, the memory is always emotional and presupposes a subjective vision of the past and its moral evaluation. Being an important means in construction of the group solidarity, memory gets a new role in contemporary culture characterizing with the reject of unification policy. At the same time recognition a subject’s or a group’s right to their own identity engenders many problems related with the need to establish a dialogue. Moreover, the memory about the past is often traumatic, dealing with the tragic events in history that leads to the atomization and increases confrontation in society. In this condition museum could be treated both as an institution which represents the different images of the past and in the same time as an important discussion platform.

Key words: museum, memory, history, cultural memory, identity, memory policy, commemoration, sites of memory, memorial culture, new museology.

References

  • Anderson B. Voobrazhaemye soobshchestva. Razmyshleniya ob istokah i rasprostranenii nacionalizma. M.: Kanon-press-C, Kuchkovo pole, 2001.
  • Assman A. Novoe nedovol'stvo memorial'noj kul'turoj. M.: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2016.
  • Assman YA. Kul'turnaya pamyat': Pis'mo, pamyat' o proshlom i politicheskaya identichnost' v vysokih kul'turah drevnosti. – M.: YAzyki slavyanskoj kul'tury, 2004.
  • Bezzubova O.V. Sovremennyj muzej kak instanciya diskursa «nacional'nogo» // Voprosy muzeologii. № 2 (4), 2011. S. 20 – 29.
  • Bogumil Z. Kresty i kamni: soloveckie simvoly v konstruirovanii pamyati o GULAGe // Neprikosnovennyj zapas, 2010, № 3 (71) [URL: http://magazines.russ.ru/nz/2010/3/zu3.html].
  • Bodrijyar ZH. EHffekt Bobura: imploziya i apotropiya // Bodrijyar ZH. Simulyakry i simulyacii. – M.: Izdatel'skij dom «POSTUM», 2015. S. 85 – 102.
  • Nora P., Ozuf M. i dr. Franciya-Pamyat'. SPb.: Izd-vo S.-Peterburgskogo un-t, 1999.
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  • Hal'bvaks M. Social'nye ramki pamyati. M. Novoe izdatel'stvo, 2007.
  • Harris Dzh. «Nasha pechal', nashe hrupkoe muzhestvo»: muzeefikaciya i novaya muzeologiya // Voprosy muzeologii, 2011, № 1(3). S. 31 – 41.
  • Hatton P.H. Istoriya kak iskusstvo pamyati, M.: Izdatel'stvo «Vladimir Dal'», 2004.
  • EHtkind A. Vremya sravnivat' kamni. Postrevolyucionnaya kul'tura politicheskoj skorbi v sovremennoj Rossii // Ab Imperio, 2004, № 2. S. 33 – 76.
  • Arnold-de-Simine S. Mediating Memory in the Museum. Trauma, Empathy, Nostalgia. – L.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
  • Connerton P. How Societies Remember. - NY: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989.
  • Durkheim É. Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse. Le système totémique en Australie. – P.: Les Presses universitaires de France, 1968.
    URL: http://classiques.uqac.ca/classiques/Durkheim_emile/
    formes_vie_religieuse/formes_vie_religieuse.html].
  • Halbwachs M. La mémoire collective. P.: Presses Universitaires de France, 1950.
  • Hooper-Greenhill E. A New Communication Model for Museums // Museum Languages: Objects & Texts. Ed. G. Kavanagh. Leicester Univ. Press, 1991. P. 47 – 63.
  • Huyssen A. Present Pasts. Urban Palimpsests and the Politics of Memory. – Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003.
  • Huyssen A. Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia. - NY: Routledge, 1995.
  • Kavanagh G. Dream spaces: memory and the museum. Leicester Univ. Press, 2000.
  • Kavanagh G. Making Histories, Making Memories // Making Histories in Museums. Ed. by G. Kavanagh. Leicester, 1999. P. 1-14.
  • Making Histories in Museums. / Ed. G. Kavanagh, Leicester University Press, 1999.
  • Mauss M., Beuchat H. Essai sur les variations saisonnières des sociétés eskimo. Étude de morphologie sociales // L'Année Sociologique, T. IX, 1904- 1905. P. 39 – 132.
  • Misztal B. The Sacralization of Memory // European Journal of Social Theory, 2004, Vol. 7(1). P. 67–84.
  • Museums and Memory. Ed. Crane S. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003.
  • Olick J.K. Robbins J. Social Memory Studies: From «Collective Memory» to the Historical Sociology of Mnemonic Practices // Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 24 (1998), pp. 105-140.
  • Sennett R. Disturbing memory // Memory / Ed. P. Fara, K. Patterson. – Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006. P. 10 – 26.
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Marina BIRYUKOVA

Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia
Institute of Philosophy, Department of Museum Studies and Monument Protection, PhD (Art History)

Imaginary Museum vs Real Museum: Concepts of Hypothetical Museums in the Second Half of the 20th Century

This article considers the phenomenon of emergence of imaginary museums’ concepts in the second half of the 20th century, associated with the difficulty of aesthetic appreciation of contemporary art in the context of postmodern paradigm. The opposition of real Museum and Museum of the imaginary, offering a subjective look at the art of the latest trends, has resulted in the scientific discussion on the topic of insolvency of classical aesthetics and priority of personal taste (personal aesthetic judgement) as an alternative to institutional assessment of art in the context of existing museums. The article analyzes conceptions of hypothetical museums, including “museums” of art theorists, philosophers and curators, as well as “museums” of artists. The ideas of the “Imaginary Museum” of André Malraux, “Museum of Obsessions” of Harald Szeemann, “Anti-Museum” of Johannes Cladders, “Mouse Museum” of Claes Oldenburg were a response to the uncertainty of aesthetic requirements to contemporary art and limited criteria for its evaluation.

Key words: imaginary museum, André Malraux, Harald Szeemann, Johannes Cladders, Theodor Adorno, Thierry de Duve, Claes Oldenburg, contemporary art, postmodernism, aesthetics, category of taste.

References

  • Adorno T. W. Valéry Proust Museum // Prisms: Cultural Criticism in Society. London: Neville Spearman, 1967. 310 p.
  • Battro A. M. From Malraux’s imaginary museum to virtual museum // Parry R. (ed.) Museums in a Digital Age. London and New-York: Routledge, 2010. P. 136-147.
  • Bryson N. Philostratus and the imaginary museum // Melville at al. (eds). Vision and Textuality. London: Macmillan Education UK, 1995. P. 174-194.
  • Cisneros J. R. Imaginary of the End, End of the Imaginary. Bazin and Malraux on the Limits of Painting and Photography // Cinémas: Journal of Film Studies. 13 (3), 2003. P. 149-157.
  • Costello D. Greenberg's Kant and the fate of aesthetics in contemporary art theory // The Journal of aesthetics and art criticism. 65(2), 2007. P. 217-228.
  • Danto A. C. and Goehr L. After the end of art: Contemporary art and the pale of history. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997. 132 p.
  • Danto A. C. The abuse of beauty: Aesthetics and the concept of art. Chicago: Open Court Publishing, 2003. 224 p.
  • Darzins J. Malraux and the Destruction of Aesthetics // Yale French Studies, 18, 1957. P. 107-113.
  • Guillén E. M. Real museum, imaginary museum: reflections on the concept of the museum as a stage for metamorphosis // Espacio, tiempo y forma. Serie VII, Historia del arte. 1, 2013. P. 129-145.
  • Heffernan J. A. W. Museum of words: The poetics of ekphrasis from Homer to Ashbery. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004. 257 p.
  • Kosuth J. Art After Philosophy and After. Collected Writings 1966-1990. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT press, 1993. 332 p.
  • Malraux A. Le musée imaginaire. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1965. 237 p.
  • McLean K. Exhibition Review of The Museum as Muse: Artists Reflect // Curator. 42(3), 1999. P. 253 – 255.
  • McShine K. The museum as muse: artists reflect. New-York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1999. 296 p.
  • Morris R. Imaginary museums: What mainstream museums can learn from them? // MIDAS. Museus e estudos interdisciplinares. 4, 2014. Pp. 89-97.
  • Parsons M. Aesthetic experience and the construction of meanings // Journal of Aesthetic Education. 36 (2), 2002. Pp. 24-37.
  • Shaffer D. Ekphrasis and the rhetoric of viewing in Philostratus's imaginary museum //Philosophy & rhetoric. Vol. 31 (4), 1998. Pp. 303-316.
  • Szeemann H. Museum der Obsessionen von/ueber/zu/mit Harald Szeemann. Berlin: Merve, 1981. 169 S.
  • Borovskij A. D. Noch' v muzee. URL: http://www.dubossarskyvinogradov.ru/ru/add/publish/night_at_the_museum. (Data obrashcheniya 15.07.2016).
  • De Dyuv T. Imenem iskusstva. K arheologii sovremennosti // Per. s fr. A. SHestakova. M.: Izd. dom Vysshej shkoly ehkonomiki, 2014. P.192
  • Mal'ro A. Zerkalo limba: Sbornik: Per. s fr. / Sost. E. P. Kushkin; Avt. predisl. L. G. Andreev. M.: Progress, 1989. 515 s.
  • Obrist H. U. Kratkaya istoriya kuratorstva. M.: Ad Marginem, 2014.
  • Filostrat Starshij i Filostrat Mladshij. Kartiny. Kallistrat. Statui // Per. S. P. Kondrat'eva. M.-L.: Izogiz, 1936. 192 s.
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Darya VASILINA

M.Akmullah Bashkir State Pedagogical University, Ufa, Russia
Ph. D., senior lecturer of the department of cultural and socio-economic disciplines

Virtual Museum as a phenomenon of modern culture

Internet and its possibilities are important for the representatives of cultural institutions. The phenomenon of virtual museums has important properties: it exists in the virtual space, it bases on the artifacts and cultural objects of the past, present and future, it is addressed to a wide range of people. Virtual museums were established in the 90s of XX century, and 15 years later the number of visitors has increased to the level of actual visitors of museums. Today, virtual museums have structural and functional diversity. Virtual museums have a lot of advantages, but they have some drawbacks: while surfing user meets a lot of accompanying information, live communication is absent, unlimited use of the Internet reduces the person's work ability, long work at the computer leads to diseases of eyes, brain and spine. Consideration of the virtual museum as a phenomenon of modern culture demonstrates the impact of information technology on the socio-cultural space of Russia.

Key words: museum, virtual museum, properties of the virtual museum, museum and Internet technology, history of virtual museum, types of virtual museums, functions of virtual museum, advantages and disadvantages of the virtual museum, online communication with the museum, Information Technology.

References

  • Nuasoft [EHlektronnyj resurs] // Web Design web hosting Internet marketing. – Rezhim dostupa:
    URL: www.nua.ie/surveys/ Data obrashcheniya: 13.03.2016.
  • Barabanova, L.YA. Grazhdanin ehlektronnoj Rossii [EHlektronnyj resurs]. – Rezhim dostupa:
    URL: http://rybinsk-onse.ru/virtualnyj-muzej/ - Data obrashcheniya: 16.04.2016.
  • Bardynov, A. EHrmitazh popal v desyatku samyh poseshchaemyh muzeev mira [EHlektronnyj resurs] // Komsomol'skaya pravda. Rezhim dostupa: URL: http://www.ufa.kp.ru/daily/26514.4/3382517/. Data obrashcheniya: 25.08.2016.
  • Virtual'nyj muzej [EHlektronnyj resurs] // Rossijskaya muzejnaya ehnciklopediya. Rezhim dostupa:
    URL: http://www.museum.ru/rme/sci_virt.asp?2 Data obrashcheniya: 25.08.2016.
  • Voobrazhaemyj muzej M.SHemyakina [EHlektronnyj resurs] // Oficial'nyj sajt telekanala. Rezhim dostupa:
    URL: http://www.tvkultura.ru/page.html? cid=2004 Data obrashcheniya: 30.10.2014.
  • Kuchurin, V.V. Virtual'naya muzejnaya pedagogika: sovremennye vozmozhnosti i perspektivy [Tekst] / V.Kuchurin. Sankt-Peterburg: Nauchno-metodicheskij centr Krasnogvardejskogo rajona, 2014. S.5.
  • Lebedev, A.V. Virtual'nye muzei i virtualizaciya muzeya [Tekst] / A.V.Lebedev // Mir muzeya, 2010, № 10. S. 5-9.
  • Maksimova, T.E. Virtual'nye muzei kak sociokul'turnyj fenomen [Tekst] / T.E.Maksimova // Diss. … kand. kul't.: 24.00.01. Moskva, 2012. 187 s.
  • Molodezh' ne mozhet zhit' bez Interneta. [EHlektronnyj resurs] // Hi-Tech. Mail.ru – Rezhim dostupa:
    URL: http://soft.mail.ru/pressrl_page.php? id=43847. Data obrashcheniya:17.06.2014.
  • Nesgovorova, G.P.Obzor virtual'nyh muzeev [EHlektronnyj resurs] // Obzor virtual'nyh muzeev v seti Internet. Rezhim dostupa: URL: http://www.gosbook.ru/system/files/documents/2011/07/11/sbor_kas_12_nesgovorova.pdf.- Data obrashcheniya: 07.08.2016.
  • Prodvizhenie sajtov, reklama v Internet [EHlektronnyj resurs] // Tekhnologii dlya biznesa. Rezhim dostupa: URL:
    http://www.proweb.ru/articles/oglavlenie/glava3/auditoria Data obrashcheniya: 13.03.2015.
  • Tel'charov, A.D. Osnovy muzejnogo dela. Vvedenie v special'nost': kurs lekcij [Tekst] / A.Tel'charov. Moskva: Omega L., 2005. S.82.
  • Uroki sozdaniya sajta – kak sozdat' i raskrutit' svoj sajt [EHlektronnyj resurs] // Svoj sajt. Rezhim dostupa:
    URL: http://www.svoysite.info/internet/skolko-polzovatelej-interneta-v-mire.html. - Data obrashcheniya: 26.06.2016.
  • Fakty o PCI DSS [EHlektronnyj resurs] A.K.Aleksanov, I.A.Demchev, A.M.Doronin // Bezopasnost' kartochnogo biznesa: biznes-ehnciklopediya. Moskva: MFPA, 2012 Rezhim dostupa: URL: http://economic.social/dengi-dengi/faktyi-pci-dss-31419.html. Data obrashcheniya: 27.08.2016.
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Igor EVLAMPIEV

Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia
Institute of Philosophy, Department of Russian Philosophy and Culture
Professor, Doctor of Science (Philosophy)

The Idea of Museum in the Context of European Model of Culture and its Postmodern Denial

In the Renaissance the model of cultural development which defined the essence of European civilization was created and it was a major factor in its historical progress. According to this model the culture develops only through recourse to the great patterns of the past culture, the culture is a “renaissance” of the past. The epoch of modernism has not changed this model: denying the forms of classical culture a modernistic artwork depends on it. The idea of museum is an essential element of European cultural model as the museum is a form of existence of the cultural past in the present. Postmodernism denies the dependence of the new culture on the past, so it is trying to destroy the museum as a form of European cultural memory.

Key words: european model of cultural, renaissance, modernism, postmodernity, cultural memory, degradation of culture.

References

  • Bibihin V. V. Novyj renessans. M.: Nauka, 1998. 496 s.
  • Grickevich V. P. Istoriya muzejnogo dela do konca XVIII veka. SPb.: SPbGUKI, 2004. 408 s.
  • Dzhenks CH. Zrelishchnyj muzej – mezhdu hramom i torgovym centrom. Osmyslenie protivorechij // Pinakoteka. 2000. № 12. S. 5–15.
  • Liotar ZH.-F. Postmodern v izlozhenii dlya detej. Pis'ma 1982–1985. M.: RGGU, 2008. 145 s.
  • Liotar ZH.-F. Sostoyanie postmoderna. M.–SPb.: Aletejya, 1998. 160 s.
  • Lotman YU. M. Struktura hudozhestvennogo teksta // Lotman YU.M. Ob iskusstve. SPb.: Iskusstvo, 1998. S. 14–285.
  • Man'kovskaya N. B. EHstetika postmodernizma. SPb.: Aletejya, 2000. 347 s.
  • Nicshe F. Tak govoril Zaratustra // Nicshe F. Poln. sobr. soch. V 13 tomah. M.: Kul'turnaya revolyuciya, 2005–2015. T. 4. 432 s.
  • Svirskij YA. I. Filosofstvovat' posredi... // Delez ZH. EHmpirizm i sub"ektivnost': opyt o chelovecheskoj prirode po YUmu. Kriticheskaya filosofiya Kanta: uchenie o sposobnostyah. Bergsonizm. Spinoza. M.: PER SEH, 2011. S. 445–476.
  • Hudyakova L. A. Muzej v ehpohu postmoderna: poteri ili vozmozhnosti? // Voprosy muzeologii. 2010. S. 12–21
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Theory of Culture

Irina FADEEVA

Syktyvkar State University, Russia
Head of the department of Culturology and Educational Anthropology
Professor, Doctor of Science (Culturology)

Axiology and Semiotics: Existential Values in the Context of Modern Cultural Anthropology

This article analyzes the anthropological crisis, an important manifestation of which is the crisis of contemporary socio-cultural semiosis. The author believes that the destruction of the socio-cultural semiosis is substantiated of destruction of existential parameters of individual identity and deformation of socio-cultural values. The article deals with the social inhomogeneity of the contemporary cultural space and intellectual differentiation of modern society. One of the factors of the crisis, according to the author of the article, is the bureaucratization of social and communicative spheres, as well as the marginalization of a substantial part of the population. However, the author notes the increase of the intellectual scientific, socio-cultural, artistic practices. It is important that these processes are associated with changes in the social and cultural axiology. The article deals with the necessity of existential reflection as a factor of axiological self- substantiation of individual and as the basis of social and cultural semiosis.

Key words: socio-cultural semiosis, sociocultural valuables, existential reflection, self-justification, hyper-communication, hyper-sociality, marginalization.

References

  • Virno P. Grammatika mnozhestva: k analizu form sovremennoj zhizni. M.: OOO «Ad Marginem Press», 2013. 176 s.
  • Bychkov V.V., Man'kovskaya N.B., Ivanov V.V. / Bychkov V.V. Trialog. Razgovor vtoroj o filosofii iskusstva v raznyh izmereniyah. M.: IF RAN, 2009. 212 s.
  • Vattimo Dzh. Prozrachnoe obshchestvo. M.: Logos, 2002. 128 s.
  • Lipovecki ZH. EHra pustoty. EHsse o sovremennom individualizme. SPb.: Vladimir Dal', 2001. 331 s.
  • Mamardashvili M.K., Pyatigorskij A.M. Simvol i soznanie. Metafizicheskie rassuzhdeniya o soznanii, simvolike i yazyke. M.: YAzyki russkoj kul'tury, 1997. 224 s.
  • Ryabov A., Kondrashov P. EHstetizaciya bezobraznogo: EHksplikaciya social'no-antropologicheskih osnovanij. Ekaterinburg: Izd-vo UMU UPI, 2012. 150 s.
  • Hardt M., Negri A. Mnozhestvo: vojna i demokratiya v ehpohu imperii. M.: Kul'turnaya revolyuciya, 2006. 559 s.
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Concepts of Culture

Daria STARIKASHKINA

International School for Holocaust Studies, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, Israel
Master of Cultural Studies, Master of Arts

Representation of Catastrophe: Memory in Art vs. Art of Memory

This article deals with topics of representation of complex memory of the events such as the Holocaust or any other examples of the crimes against humanities. It examines an issue of vividness of testimonies presented via visual art, considering photographs as a (primary) source for historical research and for artists’ and curators’ work. It looks into the concept of postmemory, which plays a key role in analysis of the of visual art in a process of shaping memory. The article outlines a locus of contemporary visual art which, accordingly to G. Pollok, cannot be only historical but should also propose a motion for reconsideration of what happened in the past, by bringing an ethics into the framework of history, museology and memory studies in post-catastrophic contemporaneity

Key words: memory, trauma, visual art, catastrophe, postmemory, ethics of memory.

References

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