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# 3 (36) 2019: Nostalgia: memory – consumption – reconstruction
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Topic of the Issue


Natalia SEMENOVA

Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Faculty of Philology, Associate Professor of Department of Russian as a Foreign Language and Methods of its Teaching
PhD in Philology


Elżbieta TYSZKOWSKA-KASPRZAK

University of Wrocław, Wrocław, Poland
Institute of Slavic Studies, Doctor of Science in Philology, Professor

The Art of Imitation and Combination: Chekhov and Nostalgia in Contemporary Theatre

The article examines phenomenon of nostalgia in multicultural milieu. Several types of nostalgia as Yugonostalgia and Ostalgia spread after the decay of USSR. These nostalgias converge and diverge. Longing is a common emotion that unites them but every time it is experienced in its own way.
Nostalgia can be divisive, puts Svetlana Boym. As “pain” makes longing an individual feeling, analysis of reasons of “algia” brings along the building of cross-cultural communication in the post-Soviet space. The powerful media that visualises the object of nostalgia is theatre. The latter creates an illusion that transforms the spectator’s experience gained through different means of communication into personal one. Ultimately theatre overcomes the trauma of dissociation and disruption.
Post-Soviet nostalgia does not necessarily assume sentimental relationship exclusively to the Soviet realm and texts. It can be any old form that expresses new content (S. Oushakine). Nostalgia is explicitly represented by the prominent value of Chekhov’s drama. Contemporary plays based of Chekhov’s texts feature the recycling of cultural tradition, including Soviet one. We particularly focus on the reception of Chekhov’s plays in Poland.
The article tends to analyze the plays of early 2000s when nostalgic projects reached a peak of popularity. We refer to “Russian Jam” (Ludmila Ulitskaya, 2003), “My Little Cherry Orchard” (Alexey Slapovsky, 2004 edition) and “The Fourth Sister” (Janusz Głowacki, 2002). These dramas adapted Chekhov’s theatrical tradition and revealed several strategies of nostalgia effect – a dream of an idyllic life, a pastiche of elements from mass culture and pointing out at some absurdities of reality. The comic sense of the plays does not exclude its focus on a global problem of person’s place in the irreversibly changing universe.

Key words: nostalgia, post-Soviet culture, identity, memory, emotions and sincerity, Anton Chekhov, Janusz Głowacki, Ludmila Ulitskaya, Alexey Slapovsky, absurd, utopia, ultimate concerns of life.

References

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  • Baniewicz E. Strach się bać // “Twórczość”. 2000. № 3. Pp. 141–146.
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  • Berliner D. Multiple nostalgias. the fabric of heritage in Luang Prabang (Lao PDR) // Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 2012. Vol. 18. Pp. 769–786.
  • Berliner D. Are Anthropologist Nostalgist? // Anthropology and Nostalgia / Eds. Angé O., Berliner D. – Berghahn, NY, Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2016. Pp. 17–34.
  • Bończa-Szabłowski J. Czechow jak amerykański serial // “Rzeczpospolita”. 2017. № 24. P. 15.
  • Bojm S. Budushhee nostal`gii // Neprikosnovenny`j zapas. 2003. № 89 (3). S. 118–138.
  • Bojm S. Budushhee nostal`gii. M.: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2019.
  • Burovceva N. Yu. «Russkoe varen`e» po receptu doktora Chexova (Dialog s klassikom v p`esa L. Uliczkoj) // Yaroslavskij pedagogicheskij vestnik. 2010. № 2. S. 142–146.
  • Glovaczkij Ya. Chetvertaya sestra / Per. B. Tux. ULR: http://www.theatre-library.ru/authors/g/glovackiy_yanush. Data obrashheniya: 12.06.2019.
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  • Uliczkaya L. Russkoe varen`e // Uliczkaya U. Russkoe varen`e: p`esy`. M.: Astrel`, 2012. S. 95–234.
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  • Cieślak J. Głowa nie od parady // “Teatr. Przegląd”. 2017. № 11.
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  • Haught L. Performing Nostalgia: Medievalism in “King Arthur” and “Camelot” // Arthuriana. 2014. Vol. 24. № 4. Pp. 97–126.
  • Kalinina E. Mediated Post-Soviet Nostalgia. Stockholm: Södertörn University, 2014.
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Alexey VASILYEV

National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia
Faculty of Humanities
Professor of the Department of Theoretical and Applied Philology, PhD in History

Work of mourning and development of discourse of memory in Polish culture of the late XVIIIth – the early XIXth centuries

The article is aimed at analysis of the process of development of the Polish discourse of memory at the turn of XVIII-XIX centuries, i.e., in the period immediately following the Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanin Commonwealth in the late XVIIIth century. The main tools of analysis are the psychoanalytic approach to culture, based on the concepts of trauma and mourning, as well as the theory of discourse by M. Foucault in its contemporary interpretation. The discourse of memory is interpreted as a response of Polish culture to the trauma of the Partitions which threatened the Polish national identity. After the Partitions there were several options for the future development of Polish memory and identity. The choice of any of them meant the choice of definition of a meta-object of discourse of memory, that is the answer to the question of what it was relevant to. One of the options was the "antiquarian discourse" of memory of the Commonwealth and the Polish people, which, subsequent to the Partitions, no longer existed. In other words, it was about the need to create a positive image of the Polish civilization for descendants who will consider it as one of the disappeared civilizations of the past. However, this form of reflection on memory did not become dominant in the Polish culture of the Partition period. The main direction of development of the Polish discourse of memory was the reflection on the memory of the Polish people, which continued to exist and needed historical consciousness for themselves. This option, in its turn, contained two possible directions of development. One of them meant development of a discourse of memory based on the political history of the Commonwealth and the need for its restitution. Another option was to appeal to the Slavic pagan pre-state origins, which had to be saved from oblivion and returned to the Polish people. In the process of discussing all these options and models, Polish culture created such a discourse of memory, in which many questions relevant to contemporary memory studies (memory and identity, memory and forgetting in culture, memory politics, memory institutions, memory and historiography, etc.) were posed. Development of discourse of memory was associated at that time with creation of various cultural institutions and practices that played a significant role in the development of the Polish national identity.

Key words: discourse, trauma, mourning, memory, identity, the Partitions of Poland, romanticism, sentimentalism, institutions of memory.

References

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Vitaliy DARENSKIY

Taras Shevchnko National University, Lugansk
Associate Professor of the Chair of Philosophy and Sociology, Doctor of Science in Philosophy

Nostalgia about the Beginning of Culture: V.F. Odoevsky and P.Y. Chaadaev

The article investigates a special kind of nostalgia in culture – nostalgia about the “beginning of culture” as a special metaphysical event. The author interprets the theme of the novel “Russian nights” as a model of creating a new culture – the culture of human transformation. This theme is revealed in the counterpoint of various subjects and topics of reflection, because it is the desired culture of the future, it is not yet, and it is seen only in its General outlines and “reflections”. The desired culture of transformation is created as a rethinking and synthesis of those higher achievements that were in the past, but have come to oblivion in the present. This synthesis is carried out through the restoration of the spiritual integrity of man. The place of the desired culture is not set in advance, and it must be created together with it. Russia is considered the “topos” of culture, which can accommodate this new synthesis. Thus, the metaphysical theme of Russia arises here not in the context of the idea of “protection of national identity”, but on the contrary, in the context of the world-historical vocation of Russia and its future culture. “Russian nights” remains a paradigm text as the model of the “other beginning”, which remains always relevant as a spiritual “initiation”, giving rise to a new culture. P.Ya. Chaadayev’s texts are considered as a theoretical “tuning fork” of this plot.

Key words: V.F. Odoevsky, “Russian nights”, P.Ya. Chaadayev, culture, beginning, Russia, transformation.

References

  • Averincev S.S. K harakteristike russkogo uma // Novyj mir. 1989. № 1. S. 194-198.
  • Batalov A.L. Grob Gospoden' v zamysle «svjataja svjatyh» Borisa Godunova // Ierusalim v russkoj kul'ture / Otv. red. A. Batalov, A. Lidov. M.: Nauka, 1994. S. 154-171.
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  • Gavrjushin N.K. Metafizika, istoriosofija i religioznyj ideal knjazja V.F. Odoevskogo // Issledovanija po istorii russkoj mysli. Ezhegodnik 2016-2017. M.: Modest Kolerov, 2017. S. 486-512.
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Yulia CHERNOVA

Kosygin Russian State University, Moscow, Russia
Senior Lecturer, PhD in Philology

Nostalgia about "good old England" in J. B. Priestley’s novels “Good Companions” and “Lost Empires”

The value of the past for a person has repeatedly become the subject of reflection in the artistic and journalistic work of John. B. Priestly. In this regard, one of the important methods of drama and prose writer is a retrospection. The article analyzes the reasons for the appeal of John. B. Priestley to the memories of England before the war. Based on the fact that the First world war, the writer was an ordinary soldier, it's time J. B. Priestley described very little in his works of art his military experience, but noted its importance for the removal from politics and appeal to the theater. Military experience he describes them by means of staging. Interesting, from the author's point of view, is the emergence of the theme of memory and nostalgia around the image of the theater and actors. An appeal to the theater, which was an important part of the writer's life, contributes to the disclosure of images and ideas of works. Memories of England are connected with the biography of the writer, in this connection, in the works traced the features of autobiographysm. The author draws attention to the fact that at the core of the image of "good old England" is the image of the fictional English town of Braderton, the prototype of which was the native town of the writer Bradford. Priestley creates an idyllic image of an era lost forever.

Key words: nostalgia, past, "good old England", Dickens influence, world war I, autobiography, theatre, music hall.

References

  • Anastas'ev, N. A. V zawitu zhizni [Tekst] / N. A. Anastas'ev // Pristli Dzh. B. Zatemnenie v Grjetli. Povesti. Rasskazy. P'esy. – M.: Pravda, 1988. – S. 562–574.
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  • Pristli, Dzh. B. Dobrye druz'ja [Tekst] / Per. s angl. / Dzh. B. Pristli. – M.: AST: Astrel', 2011. – 674 s.
  • Pristli, Dzh. B. Djadja Nik i var'ete [Tekst] / Per. s angl. / Dzh. B. Pristli // Pristli Dzh. B. Izbrannye proizvedenija v 2-h tomah. – M.: Hudozhestvennaja literatura, 1990. – 573 s.
  • Pristli, Dzh. B. Izbrannoe v 2-h t. [Tekst] / Per. s angl. / Dzh. B. Pristli. – M.: Iskusstvo, 1987. – T.2. – 560 s.
  • Sil'man, T. I. Dikkens: ocherk tvorchestva / T. I. Sil'man. – M.: Hudozhestvennaja literatura, 1958. – 407 s.
  • Tartygina, O. O. JEdvardianskaja intelligencija i pervaja mirovaja vojna [Tekst] // Vestnik Samarskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. – 2008. – № 1(60). – S. 41–45.
  • CHernozemova, E. N. JEkfrasis v hudozhestvennom povestvovanii dramaturga («Dzhenni Vil'ers: povest' o teatre» Dzh. B. Pristli)  // Informacionnyj gumanitarnyj portal «Znanie. Ponimanie. Umenie». 2016. № 3 (maj — ijun').
  • Fagge, R. The Vision of J. B. Priestley [Text] / J. B. Priestley. – Bloomsbury Academic, 2013. – 176 p.
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  • Priestley, J. B. Margin Released: A Writer's Reminiscences and Reflections [Text] / J. B. Priestley. – L.: Kindle. – 264 p. Priestley, J. B. Lost Empires [Text] / J. B. Priestley. – L.: Heinemann, 1965. – 308 p.

Natalia GRINCHUK

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Faculty of Foreign Languages and Areal Studies
PhD Student

 

Feelings of Nostalgia in Italian Literature, 1947-1951.

The 20th century brought to Italy a series of upheavals and cultural paradigm shifts. At the same time, the fall of the Fascist regime heralded the end of an artificial construct that had been meticulously implanted for a long period of time into the mass national consciousness by the employees of the so-called “factory of Duce”. There was a process of general renewal of the value matrix in Italian society, which included the rejection of some particular values, and reinterpretation of others, and even resulted in new values being generated from scratch. It stands to reason that all these processes were reflected in the literature, always sensitive and highly responsive to the vibe of the zeitgeist. The hypothesis of this article supposes a relevant presence of the feeling of nostalgia in the prose fiction of the initial years of the postwar period (1947-1951). The purpose of the article therefore is to conduct a text analysis of the first five novels that won the literary award “Strega prize”, chosen for their representativity, as well as to discover the meaning of nostalgia for the protagonists: was it really a fruitless retrospective emotion or was it perceived as a valuable feeling? The aim of this article is to identify the types of nostalgia experienced by the protagonists, and to unravel its function in the Italian national consciousness.

Key words: Italy, post-WWII period, nostalgia, memory, value of feelings of nostalgia, value system, value matrix, paradigm shift, cultural intimacy, Italian literature, “Strega” prize.

References

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Marta COBEL-TOKARSKA

The Maria Grzegorzewska University, Warsaw, Poland
Institute of Sociology and Philosophy
PhD in Sociology

Literature and Memory: the last Generation of the Polish People's Republic

The article focuses on nostalgia in the last generation of the Polish People’s Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa – PRL). I will present its specificity on the example of three books published in recent years: a comic book about Marzi by Marzena Sowa (br. 1979), a book by Paulina Wilk (br. 1980) entitled Znaki szczególne [Distinguishing Marks], and a book by Wioletta Grzegorzewska (br. 1974) entitled Guguły [Unripe Fruit].
The research of the memory of the PRL is based on the works of Z. Grębecka, R. Nycz, K. Niziołek. I analyze book reviews and articles on the reception of everyday life in PRL in children and adolescent literature (K. Gajewski).
For the purposes of this text I called individuals (Polish citizens) born in the 1970s and early 1980s, who entered adulthood after 1989 the “last generation of the Polish People's Republic”. The memory of their childhood spent in the PRL is incomparable to the memory of other generations. The comic book has educational functions, it is a publication that first appeared in the West to tame the local readers with the exotic world from behind the Iron Curtain. The book by Wilk has been classified as a journalistic attempt at a generational self-portrait. By contrast, Grzegorzewska's stories have a high literary value, drawing a non-obvious portrait of childhood in the Polish province.
The analysis of the texts reveals that the representation of PRL in literature doesn’t correspond with its stereotypical image. On the contrary it is depicted it in a more nuanced, complex, multi-dimensional ways. Thus, the regarded texts show that collective memory of the last generation of PRL (‘memory of thirty-year-olds’) is based in individual reminiscences.

Key words: Polish People’s Republic, PRL, nostalgia, past, memory, literature, sociology of the literature, sociology of childhood, biographical memory, sociology of objects.

References

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Magdalena ŚLAWSKA

University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland
Assistant Professor at the Institute of Slavic Studies, Ph.D. in Philology

Yugoslavia on a Plate, or how Nostalgia Tastes

This article focuses on Yugo-nostalgia – yearning for the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRJ) – one of the most characteristic and popular phenomenon observed on the basis of post-Slavic cultures. This phenomenon was shown through the culinary prism, which was treated as the carriers of autobiographical and collective memory mediating the transmission of images of the past. Four books were analyzed, in which a lexicon – Leksikon Yu mitologije, Bila jednom jedna zemlja. Titova Jugoslavija (Lexicon of Yu Mythology, There was once a country. Tito’s Yugoslavia) and a cookbook – Titov kuvar, Emigrantski kuvar (Tito’s Cookbook and The Immigrant’s Cookbook) were used as a construction scheme. The texts collected there are closely connected with biographical and autobiographical narrations. Particular dishes and foodstuffs participate in the process of reconstruction of the past, allow to return to times and places soothing nostalgia for the lost home. Due to marketing reasons, the combination of narrative (auto)biographical and culinary reveals the second face of Yugo-nostalgia, which is an attractive product and sells well.

Key words: Yugo-nostalgia, SFRJ, mediatization of memory, storage media, collective memory, autobiographical memory, cooking, lexicon, encyclopedic discourse, cookbook.

References

  • Baković I. Nostalgija i identitet. Postjugoslovensko stanje // Slavistika dnes: vlivy a kontexty. Konferencje mladých slavistů II / Ред. M. Příhoda, H. Vaňková. Червены Костелец – Прага: Pavel Mervart 2006. С. 315-323.
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  • Drulović A. Titov kuvar. Белград: Laguna 2005. 253 c.
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Yaroslav GLOUSHAKOV

Russian Academy of Music named after Gnesins, Moscow, Russia
Department of Music Theory, Senior Lecturer, PhD in Art History

«I would like the whole huge country shout to Stalin: “Thank you, dear!” »: the end of the songs about Stalin

The article is devoted to a previously largely unexplored significant layer of the Soviet song heritage – works about Stalin. Broadly broadcast up to the middle of the last century on radio and in cinema, these songs became firmly established in the mass consciousness and became an integral part of Soviet life. The apogee of the songs about Stalin was the inclusion of the name of the leader in the “Hymn of the Bolshevik Party” (music by A. Alexandrov, words by V. Lebedev-Kumach, 1939) and the State Anthem of the USSR (music by A. Alexandrov, words by S. V. Mikhalkov and G. El-Registan, 1943).
The article presents a panorama of songs about Stalin, analyzes the historical circumstances of the genre. A small degree of knowledge of the material during the Soviet era is due to internal political transformations. In particular, the debunking of the personality cult of Stalin at the 20th CPSU Congress (1956). Together with the figure of the leader, the authors of the songs also indirectly suffered. Some of authors had been even before awarded the highest state award – the Stalin Prize for Distinguished Service in the field of literature and art.

Key words: mass song, Soviet song, XX century, propaganda, plagiarism, USSR, Stalin, Lenin, Khrushchev, XX CPSU Congress, USSR National Anthem.

References

  • Aleksandrov A.V. ZHit' stalo luchshe : Dlja hora s f.-p. / Stihi V. Lebedeva-Kumacha. – M. ; L. : Gos. muz. izd-vo, 1940. – 3 s.
  • Aleksandrov A.V. Laul Stalinist / Segakoorile a capella A. Kiilaspea. – Tallin : Ilukirjandus ja kunst, 1945. – 2 s.
  • Bocharov A. Sovetskaja massovaja pesnja. – M. : Sovetskij pisatel', 1956. – 217 s.
  • Glushakov JA. Massovaja pesnja v otechestvennoj kul'ture pervoj poloviny HH veka : dis. … kand. isk. : 17.00.02 / Glushakov JAroslav Vladimirovich. – M., 2016. – 191 s.
  • Druskin M. Revoljucionnye pesni 1905 goda. – L. : Triton, 1936. – 71 s.
  • Druskin M. Russkaja revoljucionnaja pesnja. – L. : Muzgiz, 1959. – 69 s.
  • Druskin M. Russkaja revoljucionnaja pesnja. – M. : Muzgiz, 1954. – 164 s.
  • K voprosu o preodolenii kul'ta lichnosti i ego posledstvij. – M. : Pravda, 1956. – 64 s.
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  • Matutite E. Sovetskaja massovaja pesnja 70–80-h godov. – M. : Znanie, 1982. – 128 s.
  • Narodnye pesni o Lenine i Staline / Sost. i red. sb. E. V. Gippius ; Akademija nauk SSSR. Fol'klornaja komissija pri Institute jetnografii. – M. : Iskusstvo, 1938. – 129 s.
  • Nest'ev I. Sovetskaja massovaja pesnja. – M. : Muzgiz, – 1946. – 22 s.
  • Novikov S. Gazety – moguchee oruzhie partii. M. : Gospolitizdat. 1954. – 36 s.; Rol' narodnyh mass i lichnosti v istorii. / Pod red. P. Pavelkin. – M. : Gospolitizdat, 1957. – 376 s.
  • O kul'te lichnosti i ego posledstvijah. Doklad Pervogo sekretarja CK KPSS N.S. Hruweva // Izvestija CK KPSS. – 1989. – № 3. – S. 166.
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  • Saushkin N. O kul'te lichnosti i avtoritete. – M. : Gospolitizdat, 1962. – 48 s.
  • Sohor A. Put' sovetskoj pesni. – M. : Sov. kompozitor, 1968. – 107 s.
  • Sohor A. Stat'i o sovetskoj muzyke. – L. : Muzyka, 1974. – 214 s.
  • Sohor A. Russkaja sovetskaja pesnja. – L. : Sov. kompozitor, 1959. – 508 s.
  • Stalin v tvorchestve narodov SSSR: [Sb. stihov, pesen i skazanij. Iz knig: «Lenin i Stalin v tvorchestve narodov SSSR» i «Tvorchestvo narodov SSSR»]. – Orel : Izd-vo Obkoma VKP(b) i Orgkom-ta Prezidiuma Verhovnogo Soveta RSFSR, 1939. – 80 s., 1 vkl. l. portr. : portr.; 20 sm. Vstup. stat'ja akad. JUrija Sokolova «Stalin v nar. tvorchestve», s. 3–10.
  • Tuskija I. Pesnja o Staline : Dlja muzhskogo hora s f.-p. / Muz. I. Tuskija; Sl. S. CHikovani; Rus. tekst S. Bolotina. – M., 1936. – 5 s.
  • Fedoseev P.N. Rol' narodnyh mass i lichnosti v istorii. – M. : Gospolitizdat, 1957. – 56 s.
  • Halipov N.A. V.I. Lenin o reshajuwej roli narodnyh mass v istorii. – Minsk : Akademija nauk BSSR, 1957. – 110 s.
  • Hachaturjan A. Pesnja o Staline / Muz. A. Hachaturjana; Koncertnaja obrabotka dlja f.-p. A. Kamenskogo. – M. : Muzgiz, 1949. – 13 s.
  • SHehter B. O Staline: Dlja golosa bez soprovozhdenija / Dve narodnye pesni. – M. : Muzgiz, 1936. – 5 s.

Ekaterina ANDREEVA

Doctor of Science in Philosophy, Member of AICA, Saint Petersburg, Russia

The Post-Soviet Art of the 1990s - early 2000s Between History and Nostalgia

Post-Soviet nostalgia, which largely inspired the recycling of Soviet images, takes one of its beginnings in the search for the perfect image of the present and the future. At the first stage of the formation of post-Soviet nostalgia of the great importance is an asocial «communist idealism», which, according to Timur Novikov, being an artificial and not always perfect environment, kept striving for the beautiful as a life goal. Both the cosmic image of endless creativity, to which human life can be devoted, and the idea of a «proper» proletarian modernism-globalism, meet this ideal goal. The model of the bourgeois post-Soviet life of the 1990s, as it is realized, obviously comes into conflict with these expectations, causing an ever-increasing distortion of recent historical memory and an increasingly strong mythologization of both Soviet and Russian history. If in the first half of the 1990s, the Soviet empire seemed to be a grandiose archeological ruin that disappears from memory, then after 15 years its greatness and its claims to hegemony become a direct theme of post-Soviet nostalgic works and are subject to archaic-futurological mythologization.

Key words: Soviet art, post-Soviet art, nostalgia, utopia, ostalgia, remake, recycling.

References

  • Grebel’nikov Igor. Timur Novikov i ego detstvo / Kommersant. 2000. 02.06.
  • Kovaliov Andrey. Doloy khudozhnikov-politikanov! Daiosh’ strast’! / Segodnya. 1993. # 18.
  • Novikov Timur. Utrachennye idealy schastlivogo detstva. Saint Petersburg: Novaya Academia. 2000.
  • Patsukov Vitaly. 60-e: eshche raz pro lubov // Khudozhestvenny zhurnal. 1993. # 1.
  • Pogodina Vera, Tarhanov Alexey. Vystavka v Tsentre sovremennogo iskusstva. 60-e: eshche raz pro lubov // Kommersant. 1993. # 90.

Małgorzata ROESKE

Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland
Institute of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology, PhD Student

Fashion or Nostalgia? Polish People’s Republic in the Social Imagination of Contemporary Poles

The article focuses on the reception of the PRL (Polish People’s Republic) era in the imagination of Poles. The main aim is an attempt to answer the question about the nature of the relationship of two following phenomena: nostalgia for the period of socialism and fashion for the PRL.
The first of the mentioned phenomena refers to the generation remembering that time. The fundamental causes of nostalgia can be found both in the postmodern condition of breaking the continuity of the cultural transmission, as well as too rapid cultural and economic changes that occurred after the collapse of the socialist system in Poland. For these people, the period of the PRL appears to be a time when life was easier and safer, and the world was more comprehensible and familiar place.
The phenomenon of fashion for the PRL refers to popular culture and is widespread mainly among the young generation. It concerns a wide range of cultural artifacts: clothes, design, music, film and television, articles of everyday use. They are part of the wider phenomenon of vintage and retro fashion, thus gaining cult status. For the older generation, this content is a symbol of belonging to the generation community, while for the younger generation it is, on the one hand, a trend rooted in the absurdity and humour associated with the PRL, and, on the other hand, an original, homegrown export product.

Key words: socialism, communism, nostalgia, aesthetics, fashion, vintage, retro, oldschool, systemic change, cultural change, pop culture, absurdity, humor.

References

  • Barański J. Świat rzeczy. Zarys antropologiczny. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, 2007.
  • Bareizmy wiecznie żywe. URL: https://www.facebook.com/bareizmy/. Дата доступа: 13.07.19.
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Valery GORDIN

National Research University Higher School of Economics, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Department of Management
Doctor of Science in Economics, Professor


Lev ALUSHKIN

National Research University Higher School of Economics, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Department of Management
PhD Student

Historical Reenactment as a Form of Theatricalization and Materialization of Nostalgia

The concept of historical reenactment is considered in the article as a form of post-memory implementation with the help of conventional theatricalization, which has many elements of the theatrical process: a development of action scenarios, a selection of appropriate natural or architectural scenery, a distribution of roles among the participants, a creation of individual appearance of each character, a coordination of behavioral patterns as a form of historical representation. Thus, there is the thesis that the “new reality” of reenactors is formed through the merging of several other ones - present, past and theatrical realities. At the same time, theatrical reality means a combination of “legends” of recreated characters that justify the choice of costumes, equipment, define the status of participants and set behavioral models.
The role of the reenactment movement in the materialization of post-memory is also substantiated in the article. It happens through the formation of the “reality of past times” by reenactors. This reality is perceived through physical experience associated with the creation and usage of material artifacts, whether it is the production and usage of weapons, military uniforms, household accessories; mastering crafts and leisure activities in the camp. It is emphasized that the question of reliability of materials and artifacts is on the first place among reenactors. Moreover, visible elements of artifacts are equally important as the elements which usually remain invisible to the public.
The article also presents some results of the study, conducted by the authors. The research includes more than 30 clubs of historical reenactment. During the research it has been found that all of them carry out the reenactment of military events; a significant part of them performs a gastronomic reenactment which reflects the gastronomic models of the corresponding epoch; regardless of the reconstructed epoch, organizational and legal form, clubs conduct educational activity that defers depending on the reconstructed epoch by the format and nature of knowledge and skills that participants receive. According to this information, the authors concluded that the clubs of historical reenactment not only carry out the theatricalization and materialization of nostalgia, but also form the post-memory in which it is based.

Key words: nostalgia, memory, post-memory, historical reenactment, clubs of historical reenactment, theatrical reality, artifact, reenactment of military events, gastronomic reenactment.

References

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  • Hofer J. Medical dissertation on nostalgia [Медицинская диссертация на тему «Ностальгия»], 1688, перевела с латыни на английский C.K. Anspach // History of Medicine. 1934. Vol. 2. P. 376–391.
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  • Tung V. & Brent Ritchie J. R. Investigating the Memorable Experiences of the Senior Travel Market: An Examination of the Reminiscence Bump [Изучение впечатлений среди пожилых путешественников: исследование воспоминаний] // Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. 2011. Vol. 28. No. 3. P. 331-343.
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Anatoliy LUGOVTSEV

Academy of Media Industry, Moscow, Russia
Department of Screen Arts, PhD Student

Nostalgia for Novelty. Design and Special Effects in Movies

The author attempts to identify the main features that distinguish high-quality media products, that can hold the viewer's attention, affect imagination for a long time and shape his artistic preferences, providing the effect of re-viewing from ordinary entertainment products. In this connection, the article proposes a detailed analysis of modern approaches to media production, identifies non-identical roles of object design and visual special effects in the media industry, reveals the fundamental differences between these concepts that are critical for scientific discourse. The aspects of media industry development related to the mechanisms of audience involvement and increasing the viewer's interest to content through various types of representation of key visual elements of transmedia projects in the cultural space are considered. The subject-spatial content of screen works as the object of study is analised with the method of art study of the integrated audiovisual images. Among the conclusions are the ways to improve media products, in particular, rethinking the role of the creative process and imagination.

Key words: special effects, object design, concept design, cinema, animation, novelty, originality, imagination, visual effects, computer graphics, characters, transmedia, creative process, subject-spatial imagery.

References

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Theory of Culture

Oleg ARONSON

Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
PhD in Philosophy, Senior Research Fellow

The Face in Mass Culture

The article attempts to trace the changes in the attitude to the face that are taking place in a society dominated by mass culture. In analyzing the face as a specific phenomenon that has been endowed with cultural supra-value and that combines the religious and mundane levels of existence, the author reveals those properties of contemporary mass culture that mark a radical break from a culture oriented towards an individual. Special attention is given to the relationship of consumption and personification. The analysis of Andy Warhol’s works shows how mass culture uses the face as a commodified image (replicated faces of famous actors and political figures that are equated with consumer goods). This allows one to reconsider the image-face, regarding it as some sort of “portrait” of the Cartesian subject that comes to replace the divine face in the secular age. However, in the works of Warhol, in addition to the face as ready-made, there is another layer of images pertaining to cinema (his projects “Screen Tests” and “Blow Job”). Here the face opens up an affective dimension that surpasses mass consumption but does not refer to any transcendental order whatsoever. This hypothesis is further corroborated by the analysis of the Soviet film “July Rain” (1967, dir. Marlen Khutsiev). Khutsiev’s film produced in a society of total deficit and not one of affluence demonstrates that even when the function of consumption is weakened, the face is already part of the culture of replication, ceasing to be a unique and separate object. The world appears to be completely photogenically “personified” by cinema that reveals in it a specific “mimic life of things” (Bela Balasz). The face thus acquires its communicative function as part of this world of equality.

Key words: face, mass culture, personification, consumption, affect, cinema, equality, Warhol, Khutsiev, Sartre, Deleuze.

References

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  • Gorine J.-P. Enquete sur une image // Tel Quel. 1972. № 52.

Concepts of Culture

Anna KAZAKOVA

Kaluga State University named after K. E. Tsiolkovski, Kaluga, Russia
Associate Professor of Philosophy and Cultural Studies Department
PhD in Sociology

Smell of Home: Olfactory Images in Time-Spatial Frames

The smell is considered as a cultural and communicative code. Student's reactions to words-incentives, meaning certain topos, significant as elements of lifestyle and (or) values have been collected through the test of free associations. These reactions were formalized and subjected to frequency, discriminant and factor analysis to answer the following questions. What smell associations are of conventional nature? What is the source of variability? To what extent housing conditions affect the olfactory image of the environment? Such frames as New Year, Old buildings (Cultural Heritage objects) and Hospital are the most common (over - social) cultural - mental and cultural-sensual images inherent in students. The Gym is a gender polarized image, pleasant for boys and unpleasant for girls. Girls in general are more sensitive to smells and have a greater olfactory palette, which is expressed in a greater number of verbal reactions. The determinants of positive or negative perception of a set of smells that mark images of Home and Poverty as sources of the highest variability are housing conditions. All variety of the house's olfactory characteristics of is divided into two paradigmatic image models: "bad" house and "good" house. Both are designed using the same criteria for the allocation of odors, among which the main share is the smell of food and sanitation. The main thing how they differ is the way the image of the house interacts with the images of the wider surrounding space, painting them in positive or negative tones, complementing them or entering into conflict.

Key words: frame, olfactory image, non-verbal semiotics, well-being, housing, home appreciation.

References

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Case study




Dimitri SPIVAK

D.S.Likhachev Russian Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage, Russia
Head of Center for Basic Studies in the Sphere of Culture
Human Brain Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg, Russia
Principal Research Fellow, Doctor of Sciences in Philology


Guylchokhra SEYIDOVA

Chairperson of the Branch of UNESCO Chair on Comparative Studies of Spiritual Traditions, their Specific Cultures and Interreligious Dialogue in the Northern Caucasus, Derbent, Russia
Associate Professor of the Department of Legal Sciences and Humanities of the Derbent Branch of Dagestan State University
Teacher Emeritus of the Republic of Dagestan, PhD in Philosophy


Alina VENKOVA

Herzen State Pedagogical University, St.Petersburg, Russia
Associate Professor, PhD in Cultural Studies
D.S.Likhachev Russian Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage, Moscow
Center for Basic Studies in the Sphere of Culture, Principal Research Fellow

Psychological Peculiarities of Shiite Muslims in Russia: Basic Trends

The paper presents results of a mass psychological survey, conducted by experts of UNESCO Chair on Comparative Studies of Spiritual Traditions, their Specific Cultures and Interreligious Dialogue, based at D.S.Likhachev Russian Scientific Research Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage. The study was focused upon psychological characteristics of Shiite Muslims, being mostly ethnic Azerbaijanis, urban dwellers of the city of Derbent and its environs, at the South of the Republic of Daghestan, Russian Federation. The main blocks of the survey were dedicated to the degree of psychological tension / activation, and to psychological defense mechanisms and reserves, applied primarily in order to cope with stress. 100 practicing Shiite Muslims were questioned, aged and young, female and male, in a protected environment, right after the Friday prayer at the historical Juma Mosque. In each case, the survey consisted of a written interview, comprising 6 standard questionnaires, as well as a form of informed consent. The basic result consisted in the fact that general psychological state of the respondents, as reflected by integral indices of short-term (reactive) inner tension / activation, long-term (personal) neuroticization, alertness of psychological defense mechanisms, as well as reserve mechanisms of the psyche, corresponded quite well to the norms, defined in the course of the earlier field studies of the urban population of the Russian Federation in general. This means that the overall psychological state of our respondents was quite normal and fine. In a wider context, cultural differences, existing between the ethnoreligious group of the Shiite Muslims in Russia, and the urban population of this country in general, are definitely not crucial, at least in the realm of psychological states and processes regarded by us, which contributes in its turn to the psychological compatibility of both, as well as to interfaith dialogue and intercultural rapprochement. Psychological peculiarities, discovered by us, consisted primarily in rather high levels of intrinsic religiosity, and of social conformity. The former one should be regarded as quite natural for members of an influential Muslim congregation. The latter one, being characteristic only of women, both aged and young, could be tentatively regarded as testifying in favor of the fact that social norms and conventions imposed upon members of the local female subculture, tend to produce by them a certain degree of psychological tension.

Key words: Psychological state, psychological defense mechanisms, intrinsic religiosity, Shiite Muslims, intercultural dialogue.

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Theory of Art


Anna SUVOROVA

Perm State University, Perm, Russia
Associate Professor of Department Culturology and Social-Humanitarian Sciences, PhD in History of Arts


Sergei KUDRIN

Perm State University, Perm, Russia
Magister Student of Department Philosophy

Discursive Shifts in the Philosophy and Aesthetics of French Art in the Second Half of the 1940s – 1950s: From Art Brut of Jean Dubuffet to Yves Klein’s «New Realism»

The article reflects discursive shifts in the philosophy and aesthetics of French art of the second half of the 1940s – 1950s: from Art Brut of Jean Dubuffet to Yves Klein’s «new realism». During the analysis of the activity and theoretical texts of the artists, the causes of this process are revealed, the consequences of these discursive shifts in Jean Dubuffet (discourse of the madman) and Yves Klein (discourse of the will to knowledge) are analyzed. Artists so different in formal languages and sources of creativity produce in the theory and practice of their art a kind of operation of «zeroing» the experience of the immediately preceding culture. They turn to the archaic, primitive, immaterial, spiritual, that denies the reality of the present, takes away from the recent past of the Second World War. In addition, illustrated as Otherwise for the art world affects the art of the mid-twentieth century in Western Europe, both retrospectively and prospectively, on the example of these two artists, providing an opportunity to create new in the world of art and in areas adjacent to it.

Key words: discourse, French art, philosophy of art, aesthetics, Jean Dubuffet, art brut, Yves Klein, «new realism», immaterial pictorial sensibility, Otherwise.

References

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Review

Mikhail STEPANOV

Saint-Petersburg State University of Industrial Technology and Design, Russia
Head of the Department of Advertising and Public Relations at the Institute of Business Communications
D.S.Likhachev Russian Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage, Russia
Senior Researcher of the Center for Basic Studies in the Sphere of Culture
PhD in Philosophy

The Image outside of Logos

The article attempts to consider the possibility of an image outside its rational, utilitarian use from the perspective of a media theory. The text is caused by the book Ekaterina Vasilyeva published in 2019, “Photography and the illogical form”, dedicated to the study of photography as an art containing illogical principles, that is, revealing an appeal to the irrational, with the goal of revealing illogical in photography and modern culture as a whole. Vasilyeva’s study shows the presence in a number of media phenomena of the modern culture of elements that have their own activity and logic, not subject to human rationality. Here we are dealing with the de-autonomy of media, which is a key feature of media phenomena that work with the production of meaning. Neither authors nor machines possess autonomy by means of which symbolic forms bearing meaning are produced. Co-creation takes place here. The book by Vasilyeva contributes to the development of a culture-oriented media theory, helps to consider the photographic image outside its technological, anthropological and sociological interpretation through inclusion in a wide media and cultural context.

Key words: photography, non-logical form, irrational, Vasilyeva E., media, deautonomy.

References

  • Vasil'eva E. Fotografija i vnelogicheskaja forma. Moskva: NLO, 2019. - 312 c. ill. Serija «Ocherki vizual'nosti»
 

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