Polina V. KRAVCHENKO
Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Saint Petersburg, Russia
48, Moika Emb., St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191186
Postgraduate Student of Theory and History of Culture Department
Charitable Foundation Anton tut ryadom
1, Troitskaya square, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, 197046
Curator of the project Autism Friendly
ORCID: 0000-0002-8287-6406Diversity and Inclusion in the Context of Contemporary Museum PracticesAbstract:
The article examines inclusion in the context of contemporary museum programs. The development of inclusive museum projects is analysed, as well as the correlation with a change in the approach to understanding inclusion in Russia and in world practices: the inclusion of persons with disabilities in a full-fledged social and cultural life to inclusion as a culture of diversity and acceptance in society.
Modern museum educational, educational, research projects change consistently in the sociocultural context. The emergence of inclusive programs reflects a paradigm shift in the understanding of disability in society. Until 1965, the medical model of understanding disability prevailed. Disability is characterized as a medical phenomenon: disabilities are counted as “defects” that need to be cured or corrected in order for a person to become healthy. Initially, it is assumed that disability is an indicator of a person's “ill health”. The medical model determines the treatment, the necessary corrective or curative therapy, as well as the creation of special auxiliary services, closed medical institutions. The model was criticized for stigmatization, oppression, discrimination against people with disabilities. In 1980, the World Health Organization published recommendations for working with people with disabilities, which is based on the use of the terms "impairment", "limitation of life activity", "social failure".
In 1966, disability-experienced researcher Paul Hunt publishes the essay Critical Condition. The author criticizes the medical model of disability and focuses on the formation of an economic and social restrictive and protective attitude towards people with disabilities. The unequal status also determined the legal issue. The social model of disability does not deny the existence of mental, physical characteristics, contributes to an adapted approach to the creation of programs, the definition of treatment, the necessary assistance. The main difference from the medical model is the change in the concept of disability as an obstacle and limitation of activity. In 1976, UPIAS redefined disability based on ideas from Paul Hunt. UPIAS topical ideas spoke about problems in society, social structures, infrastructure. Thus, the environment becomes the main source of social exclusion.
The movements for equal rights for people with disabilities contribute to the formation of several laws that oblige the infrastructure to work on the environment in education, cultural institutions, medicine, transport accessibility, etc. The article's primary focus is inclusive practices in museums worldwide and reflects on Russia's experience, аs well as the analysis of participation in museum inclusive programs and projects.Key words:
inclusion, museum inclusion, neurodiversity move-ment, diversity, accessibility, accessible environment.References:
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Kravchenko, P. Diversity and Inclusion in the Context of Contemporary Museum Practices. International Journal of Cultural Research, 3 (44). 66–76. DOI: 10.52173/2079-1100_2021_3_66