Lana M. Uzarashvili
Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences
Goncharnaya Ulitsa, 12 str.1, Moscow, Russia, 109240
PhD student, department of aesthetics
ORCID: 0000-0002-4248-3165Materialism of P. Kropotkin: Ecology, Anticolonialism, and Aesthetics of CommonAbstract:
This article analyzes the work of P. Kropotkin through the philosophical dimension of Anthropocene. This article focuses on relations between ecology, decolonization and aesthetics. He viewed nature as a dynamic system, which development has a progressive form but not in the classical sense. The classical and at the same time colonial perception of development has a linear model perceived as universal. This means that the colonial state, seizing new spaces (land), imposes its perception of time (development) on the occupied territories. Such universalism plays a justifying role for the colonizer's policy: extraction of resources, alienation of land, exploitation of indigenous people. The lifestyle of the latter appears as «traditional», requiring modernization. People of this lifestyle are regarded as «backward» and immobile. Kropotkin makes it clear that progress is a differentiation, the emergence of new forms of life or lifestyles – not a modernization. He observed ecosystems on his expeditions to Siberia and Manchuria and studied extensive material from evolutionary biology, anthropology, geology, geography, etc. These studies resulted in discovery of the primary role of the principle of mutual aid among living organisms rather than struggle with each other for survival. Common as an «affective infrastructure» can stand as aesthetic ground for this principle, which is useful for building scenarios for future by experiencing the sensuality of coexistence. The principle of mutual aid indicates the impossibility of the classical linear scheme of development from simple to complex, which leads to assertion of the incorrectness of division of cultures into «traditional» and «civilized», because this principle is often found in its perfect form in «lower» animals, including insects. What we consider «civilization», on the contrary, is undesirable, because it deprives us of the chance for survival. The reason is the disruption of the principle of mutual aid through the creation of states and the formation of private property. According to Kropotkin, in historical science, wars also occupy a central place, and very little attention is paid to the daily practices of people. Telling history through the lenses of the victorious wars of European states is one of the forms of colonial policy, in which war is normalized and considered fair.Key words:
Colonialism, Settler Colonialism, Anarchism, Communism, Mutual Aid, Evolution, Linear Time, Progressivism, Imperialism, Animal Rights, Colonial Museum, Warfare.References:
- Kropotkin, P. A. (2007). Vzaimopomoshch’ kak faktor evolyucii [Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution]. Samoobrazovanie, Moscow. 61. (In Russian).
- (2017). Russian Settler Colonialism. In Cavanagh E., Veracini L (Eds.) The Routledge Handbook of the History of Settler Colonialism. Routledge. 314–315.
- Wolfe, P. (2006). Settler colonialism and the elimination of the native. Journal of Genocide Research, 8(4). 389. DOI:1080/14623520601056240
- Nanni, G. (2012). The Colonisation of time. Ritual, Routine and Resistance In the British Empire. Manchester University Press.
- Phillips, R. (2018). Placing Time, Timing Place: Dismantling the Master’s Map and Clock. The Funambulist. https://thefunambulist.net/magazine/cartography-power/placing-time-timing-space-dismantling-masters-map-clock-rasheedah-phillips.
- Shestakova, S. (2021).The Heterogeneous Temporalities of Russia’s Colonialism. PARSE. https://parsejournal.com/article/the-heterogeneous-temporalities-of-russias-colonialism/?fbclid=IwAR1RXFFilh06aWyrxhe3Z6ixqZuhly6Gw45TagazAeRe3lq3FOCzaUWbDGE.
- Bhandar, B. (2011). Plasticity and Post-Colonial Recognition: ‘Owning, Knowing and Being’. Law Critique,22 (3).DOI:1007/s10978-011-9089-y
- Tlostanova, M. (2009). Dekolonial’nye gendernye epistemologii [Decolonial Gender Epistemologies]. OOO «IPC “Maska”». 66.
- Ferretti, F. (2019). Anarchy and Geography. Reclus and Kropotkin in the UK. Routledge. 120.
- Kropotkin, P. A. (2021). Vzaimnaya pomoshch’ sredi zhivotnyh i lyudej kak dvigatel’ progressa [Mutual Aid among Animals and Humans as A Driving Force for Progress]. Lenand, Moscow. 68. (In Russian).
- Kropotkin, P. A. (1991). Etika [Ethics]. Politizdat, Moscow. 47.
- Savoshchenko, I. S. Vegetarianstvo [Vegetarianism]. Bol’shaya Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. https://litresp.ru/chitat/ru/B/bse-bse/boljshaya-sovetskaya-enciklopediya-ve/28 (In Russian).
- Reclus, E. (2016). O vegetarianstve [On Vegetarianism]. http://az.lib.ru/r/reklju_elize/text_1905_o_vegetorianstve.shtml (In Russian).
- Ukradyzhenko, F. (1917). Prizyv [Appeal]. Vegetarianskij vestnik. http://www.vita.org.ru/veg/veg-literature/veg-vestnik1917/18.htm (In Russian).
- Brang, P. (2006). Rossiya neizvestnaya: Istoriya kul’tury vegetarianskih obrazov zhizni ot nachala do nashih dnej [Unknown Russia: History of Vegetarian Ways of Life from the Beginning till Nowadays]. Yazyki slavyanskoj kul’tury, Moscow (In Russian).
- Berlant, L. (2016). The commons: Infrastructures for troubling times. Environment and Planning D: Society And Space. 34(3). DOI: 10.1177/0263775816645989.
- Muñoz, H. E. Cruising Utopia. NY: New York University Press, 2009. 187.
- Malabou, C. (2020). Rethinking Mutual Aid. Kropotkin and Singer in Debate. Fall Semester. https://fallsemester.org/2020-1/2020/4/8/catherine-malabou-rethinking-mutual-aid-kropotkin-and-singer-in-debate.
- «Reflections on the Plantaciocene: a conversation with Donna Haraway & Anna Tsing». https://edgeeffects.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/PlantationoceneReflections_Haraway_Tsing.pdf.
- Chattopad’yaj, S. (2020). Infil’traciya akademii cherez (anarho-)ekofeministskie pedagogiki [Infiltrating the Academy through (Anarcha-)Ecofeminist Pedagogies]. Akrateia. https://akrateia.info/infiltratsiia-akademii-skvoz-anarkho-ekofeministskie-pedagogiki/ (In Russian).
- Lazorenko, I. «V poiskah zateryannogo sleda: sredi imenityh orlovcev polyarnyj issledovatel’ Vladimir Rusanov zanimaet osoboe mesto» [Searching for a Lost Trace: Vladimir Rusanov, a polar explorer, holds a special status amongst other prominent Oryol Residents]. Orel-region. https://regionorel.ru/novosti/society/v_poiskakh_zateryannogo_sleda_sredi_imenitykh_orlovtsev_polyarnyy_issledovatel_vladimir_rusanov_zani/(In Russian).
- Rakhmaninova, M. (2020). Vlast’ i telo [Power and Body]. Radikal’naya teoriya i praktika, Moscow. 90 p. (In Russian).
- Lambert, L. (2021). They Have Clocks, We Have Time: Introduction. The Funambulist. Politics of Space and Body,(36). 16.
- Kropotkin, P.A. (1919). Khleb i volya [The Conquest of Bread]. Golos truda, Saint Petersburg. 165 p. (In Russian).
- Young, R. J. S. (2016). Imperialism. In Young R. J. S. Postcolonialism: An Historical Introduction. Wiley.27.
- Hardt, M & Negri, A. (2004). Imperiya [Empire]. Praksis, Moscow. 27–28.
Uzarashvili, L. Materialism of P. Kropotkin: Ecology, Anticolonialism, and Aesthetics of Common. International Journal of Cultural Research, 4 (45). 56–68. DOI: 10.52173/2079-1100_2021_4_56